Water hardness   

Water hardness



Conversion of Water Hardness and calculation of the demand of Sodiumchloride for dehardening:
  1. Enter a hardness value of your choice.
Dissolved alkaline earth metals together with the dissociation forms of carbonic acid form the hardness in water. The main hardness formers are the cations of Calcium and Magnesium. The anions relevant for hardness formation are the carbonates of carbonic acid.

Boiler scale consists mainly of a stable crystal form of calcium carbonate (Calcite). Scale occurs when saturation limits are exceeded. Less stable crystal forms like Aragonite are also possible.

Ion exchangers remove Calcium and Magnesium cations by substituting them by two Sodium ions each from table salt. Calcium- and Magnesiumcarbonates are replaced by Sodiumcarbonates. Calcium- und Magnesiumchlorides leave the process with the effluent of the ion exchanger.
Converions factor
Acid capacity KS4,3 mmol/liter
mval/liter
1
Degree german hardness °dH 2,8
Degree german hardness Clark
Degree of english hardness
°Clark
°e
3,51
Degree french hardness
(Switzerland)
°fH 5
approximately
Calcium carbonate mg/l 50
Hydrogen carbonate mg/l 61


Means of Calculation

Acid capacity KS4,3   [mmol/liter]  
Degree german hardness   °dH  
Degree Clark   °e  
Degree french hardness   °fH  
Calcium carbonate CaCO3   [mg/liter]  
Hydrogen carbonate HCO3   [mg/liter]  





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